- Purpose is to give the results to the reader in a meaningful way
- What is included: statement of the results. Can be presented by graphs, tables, diagrams and written text. Raw data is included in an appendix if they are even included. Explanatory text helps explain the graphs, tables and diagrams by explaining why they are important. It also points out important facts and making it easier on the reader by saying nearly half instead of 448.5%.
- Common Problem: The text includes all the data often repeating itself without making it meaningful. Solution is that the graphs, diagrams and tables are there to present the data and that it is the researchers job to direct the reader’s attention to the important parts.
- Organization: First option is to give the results than the discussion. The second option presenting part of the results then discussion, give more of the results then more of the discussion and so on. The organization the researcher will use depends on how much data they receive. The researcher should look for a way that makes it easier for the reader to understand the results.
- Function: Discuss results based on what the researcher knew before hand and discuss about the hypotheses if they were confirmed or not. The researcher will also discuss the new outlook on their research. It also ties back to the introduction by explaining on the study has moved forward from where the researcher left off in the introduction. Questions that the researcher should answer are Do the results answer the testable hypotheses?, Do the findings agree with how others have shown? If not, Do they have alternate explanation or is there a flaw in the experiment?, Given the conclusion, do they show a new outlook on the problem?, If warranted, what would be the next steps?
- Style: Use active whenever the researcher can in this section. Don’t use first person too much because it may distract the reader. Make the points clearly and be concise.
- Approach: Organize the discussion to present the results to each of the studies or experiments. Discuss them in the same way the researcher discussed them in the results. Do not waste entire sentences to restating the results, if need to do so, use bridge sentences.
The researcher must relate their work to other studies including past studies of the researcher that they may have done. The researcher may find valuable information in other studies that will help them with their research. The researcher may find other studies that they can mention for further information.
Do not introduce new results in the discussion.
- Summarize thoughts on the subject.
- Don’t use “in conclusion”, “in summary” or “in closing”.
- Don’t state the thesis for the first time in the conclusion or introducing new information
- Don’t end with the thesis statement with no changes
- Don’t make statements that are out of context with the rest of the paper
- Don’t include quotations or statistics
- Don’t use the “that’s my story and I’m sticking to it” conclusion because it is just painfully short and restate the thesis. This kind of conclusion is used when the writer can’t think of anything else to say, it also doesn’t push the paper forward.
- Don’t use the “Sherlock Holmes” conclusion because it keeps the thesis a secret until the end because the writer thinks that it will give a “wow” effect to the reader.
- Don’t use the “America the Beautiful”/”I Am Woman”/”We Shall Overcome” because this kind of conclusion usually draws on emotion to appeal to the reader, it is also usually out of context with the rest of the paper.
- Don’t use the “Grab bag” conclusion. It usually adds new detail to the paper in the conclusion that the writer couldn’t interpret into the main paper.
- Purpose is to present the results, save the interpretations for the discussion.
- Summarize findings in text and by illustration when appropriate.
- In text, describe each of the results, point out the important parts to the reader.
- Provide a context, such as by describing the question that was addressed.
- Describe the results of experiments and observations when appropriate.
- Analyze data then prepare the analyzed data by text, graph or different illustrations.
- Do not explain anything.
- Never include raw data or intermediate calculations in a research paper.
- Only present data once.
- Text should complement the illustrations.
- Don’t confuse figures with tables.
- Use past tense and put everything in a logical order.
- Place figures and tables, properly numbered, in order at the end of the report.
- The purpose is to interpret results and support all of the conclusions.
- Interpret data in appropriate depth.
- Decide if each hypothesis is supported, rejected or can’t make a decision with confindence.
- Research papers are not accepted incomplete.
- May say how the research can be furthered.
- Recomending other works to further the readers insight.
- Refer to work done by others in past tense.
- Refer to generally accepted facts in present tense.
- Does not re-state thesis.
- Last words on the topic.
- Emphasizes the importance of the essay.
- Explains significance or the consequences of the data.
Caprette, David R. “Writing Research Papers”. Updated 20 August 2007. Rice University. <http://www.ruf.rice.edu/~bioslabs/tools/report/reportform.html>
“Conclusions”. University of North Carolina. <http://www.unc.edu/depts/wcweb/handouts/conclusions.html>
“Discussion”. Bates College. <http://abacus.bates.edu/~ganderso/biology/resources/writing/HTWsections.html#discussion>
Language Center. “Writing Up Research: Results”. Asian Institute of Technology. <http://www.languages.ait.ac.th/EL21RES.HTM>
“The Concluding Paragraph”. <http://www.writing.ucsb.edu/faculty/donelan/concl.html>